Medical ampule with syringe on blue background

  • 16th October is observed as World Anaesthesia Day all over the world. It was for the first time that anesthesia was administered to a human being in 1846 in Massachusset General Hospital America. It is observed to raise awareness about safe anaesthesia.
  • Since then the specialty has travelled a long journey from open ether technique to sophisticated computer assisted technology.
  • The Anaesthetic mortality which was 1:10000 in 1960 has been reduced to over 1:100000.
  • Today anaesthetists’ job is not limited to operation theatres. Rather they act  as Peri-operative physicians.
  • Todays’ Aaesthetist takes charge of patient before operation starts. Optimization, preparation, anaesthetic management, post operative care are now looked after by anaesthetists in modern health care system.
  • They are involved in Labor analgesia, Intensive care units, Radiology and gastroenterology suites, Pain clinics, trauma team, Cardiac arrest team and recently they have started palliative care services for terminal cancer patients.
  • In simple words; in any hospital 70 to 80 percent work revolves around department of anaesthesia.
  • It is no more a surgical subspecialty; rather it is a major discipline without which hospital cannot function effectively.
  • We face certain challenges in providing these services. These are Shortage of staff, maintaining quality and safety during anaesthesia, lack of monitoring equipment, and above all meeting the standards of Heath Care commission.

localanesthesia“Safe Anaesthesia is not a luxury it is patients’ right”

“Safe anaesthesia – Safe surgery”

Slogan of World federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists: 





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What is mammography?

Mammography is pro-bably the most important tool doctors have to help them diagnose, evaluate, and follow women who’ve had breast cancer and also for screening women for breast cancer.

Safe and highly accurate, a mammogram is an X-ray photograph of the breast. The technique has been in use for about thirty years. It can detect most breast cancers at an early stage, before symptoms develop. Routine mammography is not available to women under 30 unless you have a first degree relative (mother or sister) who has had breast cancer at a young age.

Why is mammography important?

digital-mammographyMammography saves lives. About 1 in 12 women develop breast cancer at some stage in life, mostly over the age of 50. The earlier breast cancer is detected, the better the chance of a cure.

Finding breast cancers early with mammography has also meant that many more women being treated for breast cancer are able to keep their breasts. When caught early, localized cancers can be removed without resorting to breast removal. Research studies have shown that mammography screening has significantly reduced the number of deaths from breast cancer.

When to get a mammogram?

There’s a lot of confusion about when and how often to get a mammogram. For now, the recommendation is that women get a mammogram once a year, beginning at age 40. If you’re at high risk for breast cancer, with a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer, or have had radiation treatment to the chest in the past, it’s recommended that you start having annual mammograms at a younger age (often beginning around age 30).

What if there is an abnormality?

Most women have a normal mammogram. Some women are asked to attend again if the X-ray picture is not clear, or to look more closely at a special area of the breast which needs a further detailed check. A small number are found to have early breast cancer and are offered referral to a surgeon for treatment. If any abnormality is detected, the patients would be advised to have an ultrasound of the breast with FNAC (A small needle would be put through the area of abnormality with or without ultrasound guidance, where cells would be taken from that site and sent for microscopic evaluation for cancer cells.)

Three important things to know about mammograms

1. They can save your life. Finding breast cancer early reduces your risk of dying from the disease by 25-30% or more. Women should begin having mammograms yearly at age 40, or earlier if they’re at high risk.

2. Don’t be afraid. It’s a fast procedure (about 5-10 minutes), and discomfort is minimal. The procedure is safe: there’s only a very tiny amount of radiation exposure from a mammogram. To relieve the anxiety of waiting for results, go to a centre that will give you results before you leave.

3. It is our most powerful breast cancer detection tool. However, mammograms can still miss 15-20% of breast cancers that are simply not visible using this technique. Other important tools-such as breast self-exam, clinical breast examination, ultrasound, and MRI can and should be used as complementary tools, but there are no substitutes or replacements for a mammogram.

Parents & Mind Wellness of Kids

WHO says “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” This reiterates the importance of mental wellbeing to live and remain healthy.

bigstock-family-love-heart-symbol-10963130Raising kids is one of the toughest and most fulfilling jobs in the world and we are least prepared for that. Children’s physical and emotional status, as well as their social and cognitive development, greatly depends on their family dynamics. The rising incidence of behavioural problems among children could suggest that some families are struggling to cope with the increasing stresses they are experiencing.

Parenting styles and tips for healthy parenting:

There are four major recognized parenting styles: authoritative, neglectful, permissive, and authoritarian.

“Authoritative parenting” is one that communicates in a warm, accepting and nurturing manner, while maintaining firm expectations and restrictions on their children’s behaviour. (The most accepted or the best way of parenting)

“Authoritarian Parenting” is an extremely strict form of parenting that expects a child to adhere to rules and regulations set out by the parents with little to no input and communication from the child.

“Permissive Parenting” is an extremely relaxed approach where parents are generally warm, nurturing and affectionate. However, they are overly accepting of their children’s behaviour, good or bad.

“Uninvolved Parenting”, as the name implies, the parent is totally dis- engaged and emotionally uninvolved in their child’s life. There is little, if any expression of love and affection…

Parenting tips

kids-cooking-clipart-clipart-panda-free-clipart-images-irj2nx-clipart-1             c8c53762a9f33e17e41ec4ea88e709c6

  • Be a Good Role Model
  • Make Time for Your Kids(kids misbehaviour and acting outs are basically attention seeking behaviours)
  • Communicate with your kids with respect
  • Enhance Your Child’s Self-Esteem (giving acknowledgement, praising, allowing them to do things independently- All these will increase their self esteem; at the same time avoid belittling comments.)
  • Reward your Kids when they do Good(try to find something to praise every day)
  • Set Limits and Be Consistent with Your Discipline; practice time out (This help kids choose acceptable behaviours and learn self-control.)
  • Be Flexible and Willing to Adjust Your Parenting Style
  • Show That Your Love Is Unconditional
  • Know Your Own Needs and Limitations as a Parent

Common behavioural problems:

Tantrums,stuttering,Autism, ADHD, Conduct disorders and Learning disability are common early childhood problems,  while Depression, Anxiety disorders, Substance use disorders and Eating disorders are the common adolescent behavioural problems,

Warning signs in children

Irritable, distractible children with poor scholastic performance points towards early childhood behavioural problems

Mood changes, intense fear, drastic changes in personality, difficulty in concentrating, unexplained weight loss, physical symptoms, and self harm behaviour- these are some of the warning signals of adolescent behavioural problems

What the parents can do?

Reach out to our kids…

Be an empathetic non judgemental listener…

Take history from his peers and teachers…

Give him unconditional support and instil confidence

Understand and accept this as like any other medical problem

Don’t hesitate to take help from an appropriate mental health professional

Easy Mouth Exercises To Help Stop Your Snoring


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250px-tonsils_diagramSnoring is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping. In some cases, the sound may be soft, but in most cases, it can be loud and unpleasant. Snoring during sleep may be a sign, or first alarm, of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

The following excercises could help you either stop or control snoring to some extend.

1. Push the tip of your tongue against the roof of your mouth and slide it backward 20 times.


2. Suck your tongue upward against the roof of your mouth 20 times.


3. Push the back of your tongue down while keeping the tip touching the inside of your front teeth 20 times


4. Lift your soft palate and uvula 20 times


5. Using your index finger, press your cheek muscle away from your teeth 10 times on each side


6. When you’re eating, bite down, and then lift your tongue to the roof of your mouth as you swallow, without tightening your cheek muscles.


Just like with any exercises, if you don’t keep up with them, you don’t get the benefits

Knowing Breast Cancer – “Breast Cancer Awareness – DETECT PROTECT”


October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month
, which is an annual campaign to increase awareness of the disease. While most people are aware of breast cancer, many forget to take the steps to have a plan to detect the disease in its early stages and encourage others to do the same.

 Know the symptoms of breast cancer

Early breast cancer usually doesn’t cause symptoms. But as the tumor grows, it can change how the breast looks or feels.

  • A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the underarm area
  • A change in the size or shape of the breast
  • Dimpling or puckering in the skin of the breast
  • A nipple turned inward into the breast
  • Discharge (fluid) from the nipple, especially if it’s bloody
  • Scaly, red, or swollen skin on the breast or nipple
  • The skin may have pitting so that it looks like an orange

These symptoms do not automatically indicate breast cancer. But, if you have any of these conditions, you should tell your health care provider so that the problems can be diagnosed and treated.

Knowing Your Body:

For women under 50-years old:

  • Employ annual clinical breast examinations and monthly breast self-examinations as your primary early detection protocol.
  • Once a year, every year, without fail, schedule an appointment with your healthcare provider to perform a clinical breast examination. We recommend you schedule it on or near your birthday.
  • Once a month, every month, without fail, set aside 15 minutes to conduct thorough breast self-examination. We recommend you schedule it on the first day of menstruation.
  • Schedule a mammogram only if needed for diagnosis of a suspected lump. Even then, be sure to schedule that mammogram within the first 14 days of your menstrual cycle.

For women over 50-years old:

  • Employ annual clinical breast examinations and monthly breast self-examinations as your primary early detection protocol.
  • Once a year, every year, without fail, schedule an appointment with your healthcare provider to perform a clinical breast examination. We recommend you schedule it on or near your birthday.
  • Once a month, every month, without fail, set aside 15 minutes to conduct a thorough breast self-examination. We recommend you schedule it on the first day of your period if you are still menstruating.
  • Schedule a mammogram if you discover a lump. Even then, be sure to schedule that mammogram within the first 14 days of your menstrual cycle if you are still menstruating.
  • Employ mammography screening every other year.

Steps to help you respond with maximum intelligence to this diagnosis and help you rebuild your self-healing functions.

The basic action points are:

  1. Step back from the day-to-day pressures of your life to evaluate your current situation in its entirety.
  2. Assess both current life issues that must be changed as well as future needs that must be met.
  3. Create a simple plan to restore health and total well-being.
  4. Work in partnership with health advisors who have your confidence. Begin a self-care plan to create whole-person well-being.
  5. Conduct quarterly reviews of your progress, making adjustments as necessary.

Taken together, these action points will play the central role in mobilizing all your healing options and capacities, both external and internal.

The Breast Cancer Prevention Lifestyle
Yes, you can maximize your potential for actually preventing breast cancer! It’s all about personal choices in how we take care of ourselves.

American Cancer Society Releases New Breast Cancer Guideline – The new recommendations are :

  • Women with an average risk of breast cancer – most women – should begin yearly mammograms at age 45.
  • Women should be able to start the screening as early as age 40, if they want to. It’s a good idea to start talking to your health care provider at age 40 about when you should begin screening.
  • At age 55, women should have mammograms every other year – though women who want to keep having yearly mammograms should be able to do so.
  • Regular mammograms should continue for as long as a woman is in good health.
  • Breast exams, either from a medical provider or self-exams, are no longer recommended.

The guidelines are for women at average risk for breast cancer. Women at high risk – because of family history, a breast condition, or another reason – need to begin screening earlier and/or more often. Talk to your medical provider to be sure.

Alzheimer’s Disease


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anigif_sub-buzz-22090-1465935906-25Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. Alzheimer’s is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. Symptoms usually develop slowly and get worse over time, becoming severe enough to interfere with daily tasks.


The most common early symptom of Alzheimer’s is difficulty remembering newly learned information.

Just like the rest of our bodies, our brains change as we age . Most of us eventually notice some slowed thinking and occasional problems with remembering certain things. However, serious memory loss, confusion and other major changes in the way our minds work may be a sign that brain cells are failing.

The most common early symptom of Alzheimer’s is difficulty remembering newly learned information because Alzheimer’s changes typically begin in the part of the brain that affects learning. As Alzheimer’s advances through the brain it leads to increasingly severe symptoms, including disorientation, mood and behavior changes; deepening confusion about events, time and place; unfounded suspicions about family, friends and professional caregivers; more serious memory loss and behavior changes; and difficulty speaking, swallowing and walking.

imagesPeople with memory loss or other possible signs of Alzheimer’s may find it hard to recognize they have a problem. Signs of dementia may be more obvious to family members or friends. Anyone experiencing dementia-like symptoms should see a doctor as soon as possible. At International Modern Hospital, we offer specialised care for such patients under the guidance of our psychiatrist, Dr. Shaju George


Alzheimer’s is not the only cause of memory loss.

Many people have trouble with memory — this does NOT mean they have Alzheimer’s. There are many different causes of memory loss. If you or a loved one is experiencing symptoms of dementia, it is best to visit a doctor so the cause can be determined.

The role of plaques and tangles

 Plaques and tangles tend to spread through the cortex as Alzheimer’s progresses.

Two abnormal structures called plaques and tangles are prime suspects in damaging and killing nerve cells.

healthyvsadPlaques are deposits of a protein fragment called beta-amyloid (BAY-tuh AM-uh-loyd) that build up in the spaces between nerve cells.

Tangles are twisted fibers of another protein called tau (rhymes with “wow”) that build up inside cells.

Though most people develop some plaques and tangles as they age, those with Alzheimer’s tend to develop far more. They also tend to develop them in a predictable pattern, beginning in areas important for memory before spreading to other regions.

Scientists do not know exactly what role plaques and tangles play in Alzheimer’s disease. Most experts believe they somehow play a critical role in blocking communication among nerve cells and disrupting processes that cells need to survive.

It’s the destruction and death of nerve cells that causes memory failure, personality changes, problems carrying out daily activities and other symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

 Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease


Doctors use several methods and tools to help determine whether a person who is having memory problems has “possible Alzheimer’s dementia” (dementia may be due to another cause) or “probable Alzheimer’s dementia” (no other cause for dementia can be found).

To diagnose Alzheimer’s, doctors may:

  • Ask the person and a family member or friend questions about overall health, past medical problems, ability to carry out daily activities, and changes in behavior and personality
  • Conduct tests of memory, problem solving, attention, counting, and language
  • Carry out standard medical tests, such as blood and urine tests, to identify other possible causes of the problem
  • Perform brain scans, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or positron emission tomography (PET), to rule out other possible causes for symptoms.

These tests may be repeated to give doctors information about how the person’s memory and other cognitive functions are changing over time.

Alzheimer’s disease can be definitely diagnosed only after death, by linking clinical measures with an examination of brain tissue in an autopsy.

Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is complex, and it is unlikely that any one drug or other intervention can successfully treat it. Current approaches focus on helping people maintain mental function, manage behavioral symptoms, and slow or delay the symptoms of disease. Researchers hope to develop therapies targeting specific genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms so that the actual underlying cause of the disease can be stopped or

CONNECT, COMMUNICATE, CARE – World Suicide Prevention Day


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14231876_1060620760658541_7316520330448059815_oThe World Health Organization estimates that over 800,000 people die by suicide each year – that’s one person every 40 seconds. Up to 25 times as many again make a suicide attempt. There are many, many more people who have been bereaved by suicide or have been close to someone who has tried to take his or her own life. ‘Connect, communicate, care’ is the theme of the 2016 World Suicide Prevention Day. These three words are at the heart of suicide prevention.


14317628_1060620923991858_7388485385653221106_nSocial connectedness reduces the risk of suicide, so being there for someone who has become disconnected can be a life-saving act. Connecting them with formal and informal supports may also help to prevent suicide. Individuals, organisations and communities all have a responsibility here.


14317602_1060620803991870_7393260786696702560_nOpen communication is vital if we are to combat suicide. We need to discuss suicide as we would any other public health issue if we are to dispel myths about it and reduce the stigma surrounding it. Equipping people to communicate effectively with those who might be vulnerable to suicide is an important part of any suicide prevention strategy. Showing compassion and empathy, and listening in a non-judgemental way is very important.


14212830_1060620883991862_138179977086114850_nAll the connecting and communicating in the world will have no effect without care. We need to ensure that we are caring ourselves. We need to look out for others who may be struggling, and let them tell their story in their own way and at their own pace.


Know the noise around you !!!


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You can lose some hearing after being exposed to loud noises for too long, for example by standing close to speakers at a nightclub. Or hearing can be damaged after a short burst of explosive noise, such as gunshots or fireworks.


If you work or frequently spend time in a noisy place or listen to loud music a lot, you could be losing your hearing without even realising it.

The best way to avoid developing noise-induced hearing loss is to keep away from loud noise as much as you can.

Here’s a guide to some typical noise levels, measured in decibels (dB). The higher the number, the louder the noise. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) says noise levels above 105dB can damage your hearing if endured for more than 15 minutes each week. But lower levels, such as between 80dB and 90dB can also cause permanent damage if you’re exposed to them for hours every day. Find out some of the common noise levels around you which you may come across daily

  • normal conversation: 60-65dB
  • a busy street: 75-85dB
  • lawn mower/heavy traffic: 85dB
  • forklift truck: 90dB
  • hand drill: 98dB
  • heavy lorry about seven metres away: 95-100dB
  • motorbikes: 100dB
  • cinema: some films regularly top 100dB during big action scenes
  • disco/nightclub/car horn: 110dB
  • MP3 player on loud: 112dB
  • chainsaw: 115-120dB
  • rock concert/ambulance siren: 120dB

Ways to Protect Your Ears and Hearing Health

  1. Use earplugs around loud noises – Clubs, concerts, lawnmowers, chainsaws, and any other noises that force you to shout so the person next to you can hear your voice all create dangerous levels of sound. Earplugs are convenient and easy to obtain. You can even have a pair custom fitted for your ears by your local hearing healthcare provider.
  2. Turn the volume down – According to the World Health Organization, 1.1 billion teenagers and young adults worldwide are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss from unsafe use of audio devices.If you like to enjoy music through headphones or earbuds, you can protect your ears by following the 60/60 rule. The suggestion is to listen with headphones at no more than 60% volume for no more than 60 minutes a day. Earbuds are especially dangerous, as they fit directly next to the eardrum. If possible, opt for over-the-ear headphones.Don’t forget that any loud music, not just music played through headphones, presents a risk for noise-induced hearing loss. If you’re hosting a social event, keep the music at a volume which won’t force people to shout in order to hold a conversation
  3. Give your ears time to recover – If you are exposed to loud noises for a prolonged period of time, like at a concert or a bar, your ears need time to recover. If you can, step outside for five minutes every so often in order to let them rest.
  4. Stop using cotton swabs in your ears – It’s common for people to use cotton swabs to clean wax out of their ear canal, but this is definitely not advisable. A little bit of wax in your ears is not only normal, but it’s also important. The ears are self-cleaning organs, and wax stops dust and other harmful particles from entering the canal. Plus, inserting anything inside your ear canals risks damaging sensitive organs like your ear drum.
  5. Take medications only as directed – Certain medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) like aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen, can sometimes contribute to hearing loss. Discuss medications with your doctor if you’re concerned that they’ll impact your hearing ability and take them only as directed.
  6. Keep your ears dry – Excess moisture can allow bacteria to enter and attack the ear canal. This can cause swimmer’s ear or other types of ear infections, which can be dangerous for your hearing ability. Be sure you gently towel-dry your ears after bathing or swimming. If you can feel water in the ear, tilt your head to the side and tug lightly on the ear lobe to coax the water out.
  7. Get regular checkups – Ask your primary care physician to incorporate hearing screenings into your regular checkups. Because hearing loss develops gradually, it’s also recommended that you have annual hearing consultations with a hearing healthcare professional. That way, you’ll be more likely to recognize signs of hearing loss and take action as soon as you do.

Taking action is important because untreated hearing loss, besides detracting from quality of life and the strength of relationships, has been linked to other health concerns like depression, dementia, and heart disease.

How to control Screen Addiction in your kid


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screen-time-and-games-heighten-aggression-and-decrease-social-skillsChildren are not immune to forces that have driven many adults toward healthy lifestyles and spa and wellness therapies. They too are living in an electronic-gadget-obsessed world, crouching over devices, as they’re fed information and images at incredible speed. Children spend more time than ever hunched over glowing screens.

  1. Talk with your child about his/her excessive computer usage.Find out if there are any specific reasons that he/she spends so much time on the computer – sometimes the computer functions as an escape from reality. If your child is facing problems that are causing a desire to “escape”, try to address those.
  2. Move the computer to an open area if it’s not already in one –it makes it easier to monitor their usage.
  3. Set a password for the computer so that only you can log on to it.Your child will have to ask to be logged on to the computer in order to use it. However, this is not recommended for older children in the house, who will need this for study etc.
  4. Set a time limit on the amount of time your child can spend on the computer each day.
  5. Replace the time that your child would normally spend on the computer with other activities – play board games with them, take them to the library, get them together with friends to play sports, etc.
  6. Be aware of what your child is doing on the computer.Check the Internet browser’s history to see what websites he/she’s visiting.

Make Sure Kids’ Eyes and Vision Are Perfect This School Year


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11325859 - eyeglasses over a blurry eye chart

With schools back in progress, parents may think they have crossed everything off on their checklist, but our eye specialist want to remind parents on their children’s eye health. Good vision and overall eye health are vital to learning and academic success. Because children are still growing, being vigilant about eye health is important. The earlier problems are identified; the sooner they can be addressed to the ophthalmologist. Dr.Tarek Makhlof, Ophthalmologist @ International Modern Hospital, recommends the following tips to for healthy eyes and vision:

  1. rubWatch for signals of eye problems– Parents should be alert to symptoms that could indicate an eye or vision problem, such as complaints of eyestrain, headaches and squinting when reading or performing other common activities like regular rubbing of the eye etc. Other symptoms to look for include a white or grayish-white coloring in the pupil, one eye that turns in or out, or eyes that do not track in sync together.
  2. Wear protective eyewear when playing sports– Eye injuries while playing sports can cause serious damage. Hence wear protective eye wears as a protective measure.
  3. Get regular childhood vision screenings 
    Children’s eyes change rapidly, making regular vision screenings an important step in detecting and correcting eye problems in early stages. eyetestFor school-age children, a vision screening, which is less comprehensive than a dilated eye examination by an ophthalmologist,

    can be performed by a pediatrician, family physician, nurse or trained technician during regular checkups. If the screening detects a problem, the child may need to see an ophthalmologist — an eye physician and surgeon.

  4. Know and share your family eye health history– Everyone should find out whether eye conditions or diseases run in their family. Parents should share that information with the person performing the screening when possible. Examples of common eye conditions include refractive errors (nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism) crossed eye, known as strabismus, and lazy eye, known as amblyopia. If crossed eye and lazy eye are not treated in childhood, they can sometimes cause permanent vision loss in one or both eyes.
  5. kid-with-tablet_opt-100623783-primary.idgeBeware of television on hand held devices– It is now becoming more and more common for children to suffer from eye strain after staring at screens for hours and hours. This is sometimes known as computer vision syndrome. Watch out for dry, red and sore eyes. Sometimes, children may experience blurry vision and have problems with words moving on the screen because their eyes are not properly aligned. You can avoid eye problems setting in at an early age by making sure that sessions involving near screen work are limited to 30 minutes a time. Make sure that there are plenty of breaks and that outdoor activity is not neglected.